ANAPHYLAXIS AND ANAPHYLACTIC SHOCK
Ключові слова:anaphylaxis, anaphylactic shock, triggers of anaphylaxis, treatment of anaphylaxis
Anaphylaxis is a set of symptoms that appear as a result of exposure to the triggering factor. The cause of anaphylaxis can be virtually all foreign substances, and its course is very dynamic and individual for each body. The most common triggers are Hymenoptera venom, food (peanuts, seafood, citrus, fish), medicines, latex, tree pollen, grasses pollen, parenteral proteins, animal fur. Symptoms of anaphylaxis may be respiratory disorders such as shortness of breath, hypoxia, auscultatory wheezing, and respiratory arrest. Symptoms of cardiovascular origin may include tachycardia, hypotension, ischemic changes in ECG, pallor of the skin, and sudden cardiac arrest. In contrast, skin lesions may appear as erythema, urticaria, and angioedema. There may also be airway obstruction such as swelling of the throat and tongue, laryngeal edema, laryngeal whistling and hoarseness. Anaphylaxis may be life-threatening for the patient. Treatment of anaphylactic shock is primarily based on the removal of the allergen, the collection of detailed medical history and treatment to prevent the further development of symptoms. Medicines that can be given in anaphylactic shock are oxygen, epinephrine, clemastine, hydrocortisone, salbutamol and glucagon. The most important treatment factor is the rapid delivery of adrenaline. If it does not help, take the patient to the hospital as soon as possible to implement further treatment to prevent cardiac arrest. The patient should be transported in an anti-shock position or, if it is impossible, in a sitting position so that no further life-threatening symptoms can develop. The basis for preventing anaphylaxis is to reduce the risk of exposure to factors that cause it. Immunotherapy is also used, which consists in gradually getting the patient accustomed to the substance to which he is sensitized
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